• Telephone:+31 20 59 89563
  • Room nr:10a-64
  • E-mail:m.w.hofkes@vu.nl
  • Unit:faculteit der economische wetenschappen en bedrijfskunde ( economics )
  • Position:Full Professor


Marjan Hofkes is full Professor of Environmental Economics at the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM). She is former head of the department of Environmental Economics of IVM, former acting director and chair of the management board of the same institute as well as former deputy director of IVM. Previously, she was a policy advisor to the Minister of Finance. She obtained her doctoral degree in Econometrics in 1987 (cum laude) and she received her PhD in Mathematical Economics in 1991, from VU Amsterdam.

Marjan has extensive research and research management experience across a number of fields, including economic modelling, economic growth, labour market economics and income policy, ranging from pure academic to policy supporting research. Her more recent research focuses on the economics of sustainable development, environment-economy trade-offs and economic effects of floods.

Marjan has obtained several grants, from Dutch (BSIK, Kennis voor Klimaat, KNAW, several Ministries, NWO, RMNO, WRR) as well as international (European Commission, International Human Dimensions Programme on global environmental change (IHDP)) research programmes. Among other advisory roles, she was member of the committee on Sustainable Development of the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER). Marjan was one of the founders of TPEdigitaal, a Dutch electronic journal of Political Economy.

Marjan is also full Professor of Environmental Economics at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration of VU Amsterdam. Furthermore, she serves as Head of Studies Economics of the new Bachelor programme Philosopy, Politics and Economics (PPE) at the same university.


Economic Modelling, Environmental Economics, Environment-Economy Trade-off, Green Accounting, Sustainable Economic Development, Economic Effects of Floods.

Academic training

1987-1991PhD thesis ‘Modelling and Computation of General Equilibrium’, VU University Amsterdam
1984-1987Master's Degree in Econometrics cum laude; major field mathematical economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, VU University Amsterdam
1981-1984Bachelor's Degree in Econometrics cum laude, VU University Amsterdam


Professional employment history

2006-presentProfessor of Environmental Economics, VU University Amsterdam (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration and Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM))
2005-2010Professor of Economics of Sustainable Development, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences
2004-2009Deputy Director, IVM, VU University Amsterdam
2004Acting Director, IVM, VU University Amsterdam
2002-2009Head of the Department of Environmental Economics, IVM
2001Deputy Head of the Department of Economics and Technology, IVM
1999-2006Associate Professor Environmental Economics, IVM
1999-2004Programme Manager ‘Modelling and Economic Analysis’, IVM
1997-1999Senior Economist, IVM
1993-1997Post-doctoral researcher, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, VU University Amsterdam
1991-1993Policy Advisor, Ministry of Finance, Den Haag; policy advisor of the Minister of Finance in the field of labour market and income policy
1982-1991Various research positions at the Department of Econometrics, VU University Amsterdam

Supervision of PhD-students

  • Peter Mulder (defended 6 November 2003; co-supervisor)
  • Rob Dellink (defended 27 November 2003; co-supervisor)
  • Thijs Dekker (defended 18 September 2012)
  • Samuel J. Okullo (defended 24 June 2013)
  • In Chang Hwang (defended 10 December 2014)
  • Trond G. Husby (defended 22 February 2016)
  • Derk van Ree
  • Andreas Coester
  • Theodorus Chatzivasileiadis


2001: Hennipman Award 2001 for the best bi-annual article in ‘De Economist’.

Selected publications

Dekker, T., Hess, S., Brouwer, R. & Hofkes, M.W. (2016). Decision uncertainty in multi-attribute stated preference studies. Resource and Energy Economics, 43, 57–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2015.11.002

Hwang, I.C., Tol, R.S.J. & Hofkes, M.W. (2016). Fat-tailed risk about climate change and climate policy. Energy Policy, 89, 25–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2015.11.012

Husby, T.G., de Groot, H.L.F., Hofkes, M.W. & Filatova, T. (2015). Flood Protection and Endogenous Sorting of Households: the role of credit constraints. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Published online 11 August 2015. http://dx.DOI.org/10.1007/s11027-015-9667-7

Okullo, S.J., Reynès, F. & Hofkes, M.W. (2015). Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production. Resource and Energy Economics, 40, 36–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2015.01.002

Husby, T.G., de Groot, H.L.F., Hofkes, M.W. & Droes, M.I. (2014). Do floods have permanent effects? Evidence from the Netherlands. Journal of Regional Science, 54(3), 355–377. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jors.12112/epdf

Safarzynska, K., Brouwer, R. & Hofkes, M.W., 2013, Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events. Ecological Economics,88, 108-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.01.016

Dekker, T., Brouwer, R., Hofkes, M. & Moeltner, K. (2011). The effect of risk context on the value of statistical life: a Bayesian meta-model. Environmental and Resource Economics, 49(4), 597-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-011-9456-z

Kuik, O. & Hofkes, M. (2010). Border adjustment for European emissions trading: competitiveness and carbon leakage, Energy Policy, 38(4), 1741‑1748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.048

Brouwer, R. & Hofkes, M (2008). Integrated hydro-economic modelling: Approaches, key issues and future research directions. Special Issue Ecological Economics. Integrated River Basin Modelling for Effective and Sustainable Water Management. Ecological Economics, 16‑22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.02.009

Brouwer, R., Hofkes, M. & Linderhof, V. (2008). General equilibrium modelling of the direct and indirect economic impacts of water quality improvements in the Netherlands at national and river basin scale. Special Issue Ecological Economics Integrated River Basin Modelling for Effective and Sustainable Water Management. Ecological Economics, 127‑140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.11.015

Gerlagh, R., Dellink, R.B., Hofkes, M.W. & Verbruggen, H. (2002). A measure of sustainable national income for the Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 41, 157‑174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00021-6

Hofkes, M.W. (2001). Environmental Policies: short term versus long term effects. Environmental and Resource Economics, 20, 1‑26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1017564418680

Bouman, M., Gautier, P.A. & Hofkes, M.W. (2000). Do firms time their pollution abatement investments optimally? De Economist, 148, 71‑86. (Hennipman Award 2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1003972811231

van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. & Hofkes, M.W. (Eds.) (1998). Theory and Implementation of Economic Models for Sustainable Development. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-017-3511-7_2 (doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-3511-7_2)

Hofkes, M.W. (1996). Modelling Sustainable Development: an economy-ecology integrated model, Economic Modelling, 13, 333‑353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0264-9993(96)01016-4

Hofkes, M.W. (1990), A simplicial algorithm to solve the non-linear complementarity problem on Sn x Rm+. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 67, 551‑565. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00939649 (doi: 10.1007/BF00939649)

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