Exposure assessment for antifouling paints and ballast water treatment installation
Antifouling compounds are applied in marine paints to prevent the growth of organisms on the hull of ships. This results in greater traveling speeds, lower fuel consumption, less emissions of greenhouse gases, and reduced global spreading of unwanted invasive species. Due to severe environmental effects of the traditionally applied compound (TBT), new antifouling agents have gradually replaced TBT-based products on large seagoing vessels the last decade. Ballast water treatment installations are applied on ships to reduce the transport and spreading of invasive species via ballast water. Antifouling paints and ballast water treatment installations may be sources of direct inputs of contaminants into the marine environment. Against the background of the requirements of the EU Biocidal Products Directive (BPD), the IMO Antifouling Convention of 2001, and the IMO Ballastwater Convention of 2004 there was a need for reliable modeling tools for the prediction of exposure and risks of new antifoulants and pollutants from ballast water treatment systems. Existing models lacked a realistic treatment of the complex transport and exchange processes in coastal environments. In 1999 the first version of MAMPEC was released. The model has since been improved with regular updates. The latest release (version 3.0) is compatible with Windows Vista / 7, available in different languages, and includes some important new features
MAMPEC is an easy-to-use and freely available model, originally developed to predict environmental concentrations (PECs) for the exposure assessment of antifoulants in harbours, rivers, estuaries and open water. The model has been developed and maintained by IVM and Deltares with continuing support of the European Paintmakers Association (CEPE). The model is also being used for exposure assessment in freshwater systems and discharges of chemicals in ballast water. MAMPEC features an integrated
2D hydrodynamical and chemical fate model, based on the Delft3D-WAQ and Silthar model. The exposure assessment model is recognized and used by regulatory authorities and applicants in EU, USA and other OECD countries for
antifouling substances, and by the IMO for ballast water discharges.
In 2011 a special version for ballast water (MAMPEC-BW) was developed for the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) for the exposure assessment of chemicals in ballast water. New applications of MAMPEC are expected for antifouling paints on marine constructions and holding nets applied in aquaculture.
New version 3.0 and support site
In the most recent version 3.0 the user interface and software has been upgraded to meet current standards ( .net framework) and several new functionalities (extended emission scenarios, multiple run options, analysis of chemical fate processes, new export options) and other languages (Japanese, Chinese, Spanish) have been added. The model and documentation are freely distributed and available from the support site http://www.deltares.nl/nl/software/1039844/mampec
Hattum, B. van, Baart, A.C. & Boon, J.G. (2006). Emission estimation and chemical fate modelling of antifoulants. In Konstantinou, I. (Ed.), Antifouling Paint Biocides Antifoulings, Handbook Of Environmental Chemistry.Vol. 5/O (pp. 101-120). Berlin (Germany): Springer verlag